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Adobe Flash formerly Macromedia Flash and FutureSplash is a multimedia software platform used for production of animations , rich web applications , desktop applications , mobile apps , mobile games , and embedded web browser video players.

Flash displays text, vector graphics , and raster graphics to provide animations, video games, and applications. It allows streaming of audio and video , and can capture mouse, keyboard, microphone, and camera input. End users view Flash content via Flash Player for web browsers , Adobe AIR for desktop or mobile apps , or third-party players such as Scaleform for video games.

The ActionScript programming language allows the development of interactive animations, video games, web applications, desktop applications, and mobile applications. Flash was initially used to create fully-interactive websites, but this approach was phased out with the introduction of HTML5. Instead, Flash found a niche as the dominant platform for online multimedia content, particularly for browser games. Following an open letter written by Steve Jobs in stating that he would not approve the use of Flash on their iOS devices due to numerous security flaws, use of Flash declined as Adobe transitioned to the Adobe Air platform.

The Flash Player was deprecated in and officially discontinued at the end of for all users outside China, as well as non-enterprise users, [6] with many web browsers and operating systems scheduled to remove the Flash Player software around the same time.

In the early s, Flash was widely installed on desktop computers , and was often used to display interactive web pages and online games , and to play video and audio content. Between and , numerous businesses used Flash-based websites to launch new products, or to create interactive company portals. After Flash 5 introduced ActionScript in , developers combined the visual and programming capabilities of Flash to produce interactive experiences and applications for the Web.

In , Macromedia Flex was released, and specifically targeted the application development market. Between and , the Speedtest. Developers could create Flash web applications and rich web applications in ActionScript 3.

Flash video games were popular on the Internet, with portals like Newgrounds , Kongregate , and Armor Games dedicated to hosting Flash-based games. Many Flash games were developed by individuals or groups of friends due to the simplicity of the software. Scaleform is supported by more than 10 major video game engines including Unreal Engine and UDK , CryEngine , and PhyreEngine , and has been used to provide 3D interfaces for more than major video game titles since its launch in As the Internet became more popular, FutureWave realized the potential for a vector-based web animation tool that might challenge Macromedia Shockwave technology.

FutureWave approached Adobe Systems with an offer to sell them FutureSplash in , but Adobe turned down the offer at that time. Flash was a two-part system, a graphics and animation editor known as Macromedia Flash, and a player known as Macromedia Flash Player.

FutureSplash Animator was an animation tool originally developed for pen-based computing devices. Due to the small size of the FutureSplash Viewer , it was particularly suited for download on the Web.

Macromedia distributed Flash Player as a free browser plugin in order to quickly gain market share. Macromedia upgraded the Flash system between and adding MovieClips, Actions the precursor to ActionScript , Alpha transparency, and other features.

As Flash matured, Macromedia’s focus shifted from marketing it as a graphics and media tool to promoting it as a Web application platform, adding scripting and data access capabilities to the player while attempting to retain its small footprint. In , the first major version of ActionScript was developed, and released with Flash 5.

Actionscript 2. The last version of Flash released by Macromedia was Flash 8 , which focused on graphical upgrades such as filters blur, drop shadow, etc. It introduced the ActionScript 3. Adobe Flex Builder built on Eclipse targeted the enterprise application development market, and was also released the same year.

Flash 10 improved animation capabilities within the Flash editor, adding a motion editor panel similar to Adobe After Effects , inverse kinematics bones , basic 3D object animation, object-based animation, and other text and graphics features. Flash Player 10 included an in-built 3D engine without GPU acceleration that allowed basic object transformations in 3D space position, rotation, scaling.

With AIR, developers could access the file system the user’s files and folders , and connected devices such as a joystick, gamepad, and sensors for the first time.

In May , Adobe announced that Adobe AIR was used in over , unique applications and had over 1 billion installations logged worldwide. Adobe has taken steps to reduce or eliminate Flash licensing costs. For instance, the SWF file format documentation is provided free of charge [50] after they relaxed the requirement of accepting a non-disclosure agreement to view it in Adobe has not been willing to make complete source code of the Flash Player available for free software development and even though free and open source alternatives such as Shumway and Gnash have been built, they are no longer under active development.

On May 1, , Adobe announced the Open Screen Project , with the intent of providing a consistent application interface across devices such as personal computers, mobile devices , and consumer electronics.

One of Flash’s primary uses on the Internet when it was first released was for building fully immersive, interactive websites. These were typically highly creative site designs that provided more flexibility over what the current HTML standards could provide as well as operate over dial-up connections. Fully Flash-run sites fell out of favor for more strategic use of Flash plugins for video and other interactive features among standard HTML conventions, corresponding with the availability of HTML features like cascading style-sheets in the mid’s.

Fifteen years later, WAP had largely been replaced by full-capability implementations and the HTML5 standard included more support for interactive and video elements. Support for Flash in these mobile browsers was not included. In , Apple ‘s Steve Jobs famously wrote Thoughts on Flash , an open letter to Adobe criticizing the closed nature of the Flash platform and the inherent security problems with the application to explain why Flash was not supported on iOS.

While Adobe eventually won, allowing for other third-party development environments to get access to the iOS, Apple’s decision to block Flash itself was considered the “death blow” to the Flash application. In , Adobe ended support for Flash on Android. With Flash’s EOL announced, many browsers took steps to gradually restrict Flash content caution users before launching it, eventually blocking all content without an option to play it.

By January , all major browsers were blocking all Flash content unconditionally. Only IE11 , niche browser forks, and some browsers built for China plan to continue support. Furthermore, excluding the China variant of Flash, Flash execution software has a built-in kill switch which prevents it from playing Flash after January 12, Adobe Flash will still be supported in China and worldwide on some specialized enterprise platforms beyond As early as , around the same time that Adobe began encouraging Flash developers to transition their works to HTML5 standards, others began efforts to preserve existing Flash content through emulation of Flash in open standards.

While some Flash applications were utilitarian, several applications had been shown to be experimental art, while others had laid the foundation of the independent video game development. Google had developed the Swiffy application, released in , to convert Flash applications to HTML5-compatible scripts for viewing on mobile devices, but it was shut down in Closer to Flash’s EOL date in , there were more concentrated efforts simply to preserve existing Flash applications, including websites, video games, and animations beyond Flash’s EOL.

Flash source files are in the FLA format and contain graphics and animation, as well as embedded assets such as bitmap images, audio files, and FLV video files.

The Flash source file format was a proprietary format and Adobe Animate and Adobe Flash Pro were the only available authoring tools capable of editing such files.

Flash source files. Note that FLA files can be edited, but output. Flash Video files [spec 1] have a. The use of vector graphics combined with program code allows Flash files to be smaller—and thus allows streams to use less bandwidth —than the corresponding bitmaps or video clips. For content in a single format such as just text, video, or audio , other alternatives may provide better performance and consume less CPU power than the corresponding Flash movie, for example, when using transparency or making large screen updates such as photographic or text fades.

In addition to a vector-rendering engine, the Flash Player includes a virtual machine called the ActionScript Virtual Machine AVM for scripting interactivity at run-time, with video, MP3-based audio, and bitmap graphics. Virtually all browser plugins for video are free of charge and cross-platform, including Adobe’s offering of Flash Video, which was introduced with Flash version 6.

Flash Video had been a popular choice for websites due to the large installed user base and programmability of Flash. In , Apple publicly criticized Adobe Flash, including its implementation of video playback for not taking advantage of hardware acceleration, one reason Flash was not to be found on Apple’s mobile devices.

Soon after Apple’s criticism, Adobe demoed and released a beta version of Flash Flash Flash Player supports two distinct modes of video playback, and hardware accelerated video decoding may not be used for older video content. Such content causes excessive CPU usage compared to comparable content played with other players. Flash allows sample rates of 11, 22 and Adobe Flash Player Flash Player Flash programs use ActionScript programming language. It is an enhanced superset of the ECMAScript programming language, with a classical Java -style class model, rather than JavaScript ‘s prototype model.

Several developers quickly created a C library for producing SWF. Macromedia also hired Middlesoft to create a freely available developers’ kit for the SWF file format versions 3 to 5. Macromedia made the Flash Files specifications for versions 6 and later available only under a non-disclosure agreement , but they are widely available from various sites. In April , the Flash SWF file format specification was released with details on the then newest version format Flash 8.

Although still lacking specific information on the incorporated video compression formats On2, Sorenson Spark, etc. The file format specification document is offered only to developers who agree to a license agreement that permits them to use the specifications only to develop programs that can export to the Flash file format.

The license does not allow the use of the specifications to create programs that can be used for playback of Flash files. The Flash 9 specification was made available under similar restrictions.

Previously, developers could not use the specification for making SWF-compatible players, but only for making SWF-exporting authoring software. The specification still omits information on codecs such as Sorenson Spark , however. The Adobe Animate authoring program is primarily used to design graphics and animation and publish the same for websites, web applications, and video games. The program also offers limited support for audio and video embedding and ActionScript scripting.

Adobe released Adobe LiveMotion , designed to create interactive animation content and export it to a variety of formats, including SWF. LiveMotion failed to gain any notable user base. In February , Macromedia purchased Presedia, which had developed a Flash authoring tool that automatically converted PowerPoint files into Flash.

Macromedia subsequently released the new product as Breeze, which included many new enhancements. Various free and commercial software packages can output animations into the Flash SWF format including:. The Flash 4 Linux project was an initiative to develop an open source Linux application as an alternative to Adobe Animate. Development plans included authoring capacity for 2D animation, and tweening , as well as outputting SWF file formats. UIRA intended to combine the resources and knowledge of the F4L project and the Qflash project, both of which were Open Source applications that aimed to provide an alternative to the proprietary Adobe Flash.

Adobe provides a series of tools to develop software applications and video games for Flash:. Third-party development tools have been created to assist developers in creating software applications and video games with Flash. Adobe Flash Player is the multimedia and application player originally developed by Macromedia and acquired by Adobe Systems.



Adobe® Illustrator® CS4 Classroom in a Book® [Book]


What they might be tempted to tell you is the resolution of their printer, which may be something like lpi. In most cases, this does not translate to document resolution. Document Color The rest of the fields used to create a basic document pertain to color. As such, you should use this color mode when using Photoshop to create images for 3D programs, video games, motion graphics, web graphics, or anything that will have its final output on a computer monitor or TV screen.

Use this color model for most jobs that will be commercially printed. Color Depth This is a huge can of worms. Until you get more proficient at Photoshop, leave this setting at 8 bit. In a nutshell, this refers to the number of possible colors. A 2-bit image would contain only four colors. An 8-bit image can contain Scientists estimate that the human eye can perceive about 10 million colors.

So, for now, 8 bit will be fine. Background Color Ah, finally some respite from the mentally intensive properties used to create a new Photoshop document.

The Background Content drop-down list shown here essentially allows you to specify a background color for your document while you are creating it. From this list, you can choose to create a White background layer, a Background Color that is the same color as the current background color in the Tools panel, or simply to create a Transparent background layer.

Introduction to Layers As previously mentioned, layers are an integral part of using Photoshop effectively. They basically contain the various pieces of our documents. Think of the layers of a sandwich. But what if you wanted to remove the lactose from the Swiss cheese? In Photoshop terms, we would say that they are on the same layer. If you add the paint strokes onto the same layer with the photo, and then you want to make changes later move them, recolor them, change their transparency, and so on , you would be in trouble.

It would be extremely difficult, and in some cases impossible. Not to mention that the pixels that you painted over would also be ruined and would need to be repaired, which would probably take half an eternity.

On the other hand, if you create a new, blank layer and then paint on that, it would be extremely simple to adjust the paint stroke. And painting on a new, separate layer would have the added benefit of leaving the pixels of your photo untouched.

The Layers Panel The Layers panel is really the hub of our layers-centric workflow. Figure shows the Layers panel in all of its layered glory. If your Layers panel is not visible, you can retrieve it from the Window menu at the top of the interface. Notice in Figure that when you create a new document, a background layer is already created for you. Photoshop actually offers several different types of layers: plain old layers, background Note layers, adjustment layers, text layers, smart object layers, and others.

If you have Photoshop Extended, you can also have 3D or video layers. How to. Fiddle with the Background Layer By default, when you open a file or create a new document in Photoshop, it automatically creates a background layer for you. This layer is locked to prevent you from accidentally performing certain changes to it, such as moving the layer or rearranging its layer order in the Layers panel. In some instances you might want to edit your background layer directly not edit a copy.

If you are exporting to another program or to video or 3D work, you may want transparent areas in your background layer, so that other objects may show through beneath the layers in the Photoshop document.

For whatever reason, if you want to unlock your background layer, simply double-click it. A dialog box will pop up asking you for the name of the layer and for a few other properties of the layer.

The new default name is Layer 0, as shown here. You are then free to use the layer as you please. The icon looks like a notebook page about to be turned. The page-turning icon used to create a new layer can be seen throughout Photoshop and in almost all Tip Adobe applications. It is a universal icon indicating that something new will be created. Remember this if you ever get stumped. This works if you want to create a new brush in the Brushes panel, a new style in the Styles panel, a 3D light in the 3D panel, and so on.

The Layers panel will then show you that a new layer has been created. Photoshop automatically names it Layer 1. If you create another new layer which you can do by using the same method , the default name will be Layer 2, and so on. Or if the layer is already created, you can rename it by double-clicking exactly the name of the layer and typing the new name.

How many layers can you have in one document? As many as your computer can handle. What Is That Checkerboard Pattern? But with the new layer that was created, you may have noticed that the layer thumbnail is a gray-and-white checkerboard pattern. What gives? It basically tells you that nothing is there. You can change the size of the layer thumbnail by going to the fly-out menu of the Layers panel Tip and selecting Panel Options. From there, you can choose whether to make the thumbnail larger, smaller, or to hide the layer thumbnail entirely.

Hiding the layer thumbnail can help speed things along if you have a really big project with a lot of layers, or if you are on a slow computer. Just use the default Photoshop size from the Preset drop-down list, and make sure the Background Contents drop-down list is set to White.

Next, make a new layer by clicking the Create A New Layer button in the bottom right corner of the Layers panel. These two color swatches are the foreground and background color swatches. After clicking on that color swatch, we will meet an important new friend called the Color Picker see Figure In the center of the Color Picker, we have a tall, narrow bar from which to select the basic color.

You can drag the little arrows on the hue slider vertically, or you can simply click the color to use. Next, we need to go to the big square on the left to fine-tune this blue color. Now select the Brush tool by clicking it in the Tools panel, or by pressing B on your keyboard. This turns your cursor into a paintbrush.

Notice that the in Chapter 5. For now, make sure that your new, blank paint squiggle is on the new blank layer is selected, and just drag in your document to paint a layer we created, and not on the squiggle see Figure Create another new blank layer. Go back to the swatch in the Tools panel, and open the Color Picker again. This time, change the color in the narrow color bar from blue to green, and click OK to accept. The layer with the green squiggle is on top of the layer with the blue squiggle in the Layers panel.

And it also covers up the blue squiggle. But we can change this through the magic of layers. Simply click the layer with the green squiggle, and then drag it down below the layer with the blue squiggle see Figure This would be a great time to rename them discussed earlier in this chapter. Another Project: Opacity and Layer Blending Another one of the features of using layers is that we can blend them together in interesting ways. The most simple and speedy way to blend layers together is by using opacity.

Opacity is the opposite of transparency. Combining Images Before we adjust opacity to blend layers together, we need to have layers to blend. Our first step is to open multiple images. I will then repeat that multiple files, they show up as tabs process to open the file dark image.

To follow along, open in the Photoshop interface. Or you can just read and watch me work some sweet image-editing magic on these pictures. These are displayed as tabs toward the top of the interface see Figure Click one of the tabs to switch documents.

This is one of the new, cool features in Photoshop CS4. You have a couple of ways to do this. First, you can select one image and then copy and paste it onto the other one. In our example, we want to copy and paste the dark image on top of the light one. You can also select the entire image by going to the Select menu at the top and choosing All. Tip You can also copy and paste by choosing those options from the Edit menu. To blend these by lowering the opacity of the top layer, click and drag on the word Opacity in the Layers panel.

Figure shows what the project looks like now. Notice how the increased transparency of the dark image layer allows some of the light image beneath it to show through. This allows for even more of the light image beneath to show through. The final result looks like the house is surrounded by early morning fog.

Even if your only mission in Photoshop is to remove blemishes or annoying people from photographs, all photos essentially consist of variations in color. Colors also have strange powers, with each color evoking different emotional responses.

Just realize going into this chapter that it might feel a little incomplete. Entire books have been written on most of the following subjects. I cover here only what you need to know to get started with Photoshop. The Essentials of Color Before we get into how to use color in Photoshop, we first need to look at what makes up a color.

One color model that has always made sense to me is that of hue, saturation, and lightness. We see this model often in Photoshop as well. These three properties refer to different elements of a color. You can choose among several ways of looking at color, and great variations in terminology exist.

What Is Hue? Hue is what most people probably think of when they think of color. So, even though red and pink are different colors, they still share the same hue. It uses the hue, Note saturation, and lightness model to adjust colors.

Saturation is the intensity of a color. As we increase saturation, colors become more vibrant and intense. As we desaturate colors, they become faded and washed out.

Completely desaturating a color will produce gray. Figures and show a blue color with different levels of saturation.

Note that both of these blues have the same hue and lightness. The only thing that has changed is the saturation.

What Is Lightness? Lightness is a self-explanatory color property. Increasing lightness makes a color lighter closer to white , while decreasing lightness makes a color darker closer to black. One of the most common tasks in any image editing program is to make things a little brighter.

In lower-budget image editing programs and sometimes even in Photoshop , when you brighten an image, it universally brightens every pixel.

The reverse is also true; when you darken every pixel in an image, you also darken the brightest pixel, completely losing pure white. Figures and show the same blue from Figure with varying amounts of lightness. Pastel colors are created by increasing lightness and decreasing saturation.

But when certain colors are used in certain ways, they do influence us. Sound farfetched? In contrast to stop and danger signs, infomercials want your money, so they FIGURE The blue swatch try to create feelings of reliability and stability. This is typically from Figure with reduced done with blue, as it radiates professionalism and trust. I used examples with these two colors intentionally, because they can evoke such powerful responses from people.

Red and adjacent colors such as yellow and orange are referred to as warm tones. These are powerful colors that can create not only feelings of warning, but also passionate emotions such as anger or rage. See Figure to see how warm colors can add to the intensity of art. Or we can add just a little tint of these colors to create warmth instead of heat.

If we have a photo, we can tint it with a warm color to add a little warmth. Did You Know? About Tinting Like many concepts in the world of color, tinting can be confusing because the term is often used in different ways. In painting, a tint of a color means a color mixed with white to lighten the color, and a shade of a color is a color mixed with black to make it darker. Using this definition, pink is a tint of red. Essentially, it means to subtly add a color to an entire image. This has an effect similar to using a colored filter on a camera lens.

Perhaps the most common type of tinting is seen in sepia-toned images, which are photos that are black-and-white with a faint, dark yellow tint to them think of the first part of the Wizard of Oz.

This subtle addition of color to an entire image is the definition of tint that I will be using throughout this book unless otherwise specified. Also, as with warm colors, how the temperatures make you feel is a good guide to how the colors should be used.

Cool things like a breeze or ice cream are generally seen as calming and relaxing. But cold things can create feelings of alienation or fear. Cool colors work the same way. Used with restraint, cool colors create a relaxed feel. Used more intensely, they can create feelings of isolation. Figure shows an image as is, and Figure shows it tinted with cool colors. Does the image with the cool tint make you feel differently about it?

What story does it tell that the original image does not? Because colder colors can create relaxed feelings, they are often the best choice for professional Tip circumstances, like bank logos and the already-mentioned infomercials. Examine Restaurant Logos The use of colors in restaurant logos is a great way to study the effect that colors have on us.

Notice that these logos are often the color of the foods that are served there. Most foods have earth tones, so it makes sense that red, yellow, and orange are used so often.

These colors are also mostly found in comfort foods, which is another reason for these businesses to use them in their logos. Some restaurants want nothing to do with the greasy, unhealthy food served at these places. Instead they want to serve fresh food that caters to a more health-conscious audience. So what color would you guess they would use in their logo? It is possible to create really intense art that has blue in it. These are just general guidelines. But remember that they are guidelines because they resonate with human nature, not because some ancient nerd arbitrarily made this stuff up.

Using Colors Together A friend and hero of mine, noted illustrator Bruce Heavin, once said something very profound about color that has always stuck with me. Like notes on a musical scale, colors become beautiful, ugly, intense, or out of place based on the colors that surround them.

If we surround the pink heart with red hearts see Figure and more pink hearts, it would look like a card your mom might buy. The Color Wheel The color wheel see Figure is a way to view the relationships between all colors. If you plan on doing any kind of art or design with Photoshop, I strongly suggest picking up a physical color wheel. Although I like to have mine in hand, you can also view color wheels online.

Several different color wheels based on different models of color are available. Because the wheel shows color relationships, it becomes an invaluable help in choosing colors to paint or design with. If you get stuck while designing a web site, DVD menu, or digital art piece, you can try one of these color schemes. These are also called the primary colors.

Knowing that these colors are the base colors helps us as we start looking at other color relationships. Using red, yellow, and blue together when they are bright and fully saturated is a very popular Tip color scheme when designing for an audience of young children. Secondary Colors When two primary colors are combined, the result is called a secondary color see Figure When experimenting with color schemes such as primary and secondary colors, you can achieve Tip a similar degree of visual harmony by using desaturated versions of the colors.

You can also try using lighter and darker versions of the colors. Complementary Colors Complementary colors are opposite each other on the color wheel. Check out schemes from complementary Figure to see some examples of complementary colors. See the figure caption for answers to the riddle. Another familiar set of complementary colors is blue and orange, used often in business Note web sites.

Because of their high contrast when used together, complementary colors are best used sparingly, especially when fully saturated.

So do the world a favor, and use complementary colors prudently. Split Complementary Colors Split complementary colors are closely related to complementary colors. However, instead of using colors opposite each other on the color wheel, one color is chosen, and then both of the colors on either side of the complement are used.

In other words, instead of using the color across the wheel, it uses the colors next door to the color across the wheel.

See Figure for a diagram of how split complements are determined. Analogous colors are ones that are right next to each other on the color wheel. For example, looking at the color wheel, we see that violet, blue-violet, and blue are analogous colors. In Figure , we see an example of these analogous colors in action in a sample design. Try going to www. For example, if you had a red color and wanted to make it pink, you would add white light if you were working with a file to be output to the Internet or a TV screen.

If you were trying to do the same thing with a file that would be printed, you would create pink from red by subtracting red ink. Understanding the behavior of color models is absolutely essential to working with color in Photoshop, because this program is used all over the world by professionals in every medium. Many color adjustments work differently depending on the color space used in the current document. If you are a web designer, or if you do video work, or if your final output will always be to a screen or monitor, then you will always want to use the RGB color mode for your documents.

This is because colors on monitors and screens are created with light, and red, green, and blue are the components of light. RGB is often called additive color. This is because we add more color in RGB mode to get to white. This makes sense if you think about it. If you had a green spotlight shining on a white wall, the color would be green.

If you increase the power of the spotlight, eventually the color would probably become white. Likewise, as with light, the complete removal of R, G, and B will result in black. These four colors are the color components of ink and are used for most printed art. Why are these four colors used for ink instead of RGB? So, where does black come in?

Black is also abbreviated as K to avoid confusion with blue B. In theory then, we should be able to get to black by adding C, M, and Y together. Or so it would seem. This is one of the biggest reasons why the colors you print do not match what you see on your computer screen.

About Spot Color It can be a real headache having a great design with amazing colors and not being able to print it correctly. The good news is that there is a solution. The bad news is that it can be a pain to work with, and it costs a fortune. Another benefit of spot colors is that they are spot-on accurate pun intended. For this reason, spot colors are often used for companies like Coca-Cola that have a certain color closely tied to their brand identity.

The most popular spot color company in the United States is called Pantone, which is why spot colors sometimes are called Pantone colors. This is somewhat similar to how a facial tissue is often generically called a Kleenex.

Spot colors are amazing, yes, but you definitely pay the price for the magic. In my opinion, Photoshop deals with color very intuitively; it all just makes sense. This will lay a great foundation for the things you will learn in the rest of the book. These colors can then be used for painting, filling areas with color, and a whole bunch of other things. In Photoshop, the quickest way to access the Color Picker is by clicking once on either of the two swatches at the bottom of the Tools panel.

But what exactly do these buttons do? I find the HSB model the easiest to understand. This is also the default color model for the Color Picker. Because H is selected by default, the narrow bar shows us a range of hues to choose from.

After you feel comfortable with the Color Picker, try experimenting with other color models. We adjust both attributes in the big square on the left of the Color Picker. To select a color in the big square, just click on the color you want.

At first, this square probably just seems like a big mess of colors all thrown together. But these colors are actually arranged in a very intelligent way. To adjust saturation, adjust the little circle horizontally. Colors on the right are saturated, while colors on the left are desaturated see Figure Similarly to how we set saturation, we adjust brightness by selecting different colors along the vertical axis. Colors at the top are completely bright, while colors along the bottom are completely dark.

To sum up, we pick colors by starting with the hue in the center of the Color Picker , and then we fine-tune the saturation and brightness in the bigger square in the Color Picker.

The upper-right area shows you your previous color on the bottom , and your new color on the top. In that way you can compare and contrast the old and new colors easily see Figure Try to create these colors in your Color Picker: How to. Understand the Color Picker Warnings Not to sound ominous, but you should be aware of a couple of warnings in the Color Picker. The top warning resembles a yellow triangle with an exclamation point in it.

This indicates that the currently selected color cannot be reproduced using CMYK inks. But thankfully, Photoshop offers you an alternative color right below the warning. If you click that swatch, the CMYK-safe color will be chosen for you. The other warning, immediately below the CMYK warning, similarly lets you know that the currently selected color is not a web-safe color. As with the CMYK warning, click the swatch below the warning to select the safe color that Photoshop has suggested as an alternative.

Every number has a color, but the numbers that describe that color change based on the color model used. Related Papers. Digital Painting Techniques. Teaching, connecting, and having fun: The interplay between empathy, play, and comics in graphic design higher education. Flash reference. Tutorial photoshop CCy CS6. Abduzeedo Inspiration Guide for Designers. Journal of Visual Literacy Fact, fiction or Photoshop: Building awareness of visual manipulation through image editing software.

You will learn step by step how you can create any cartoon character you imagine using photomanipulation, retouching and color grading techniques. With only Photoshop and stock photos or your own you can create a unique caricature that can be a logo, a mascot for a product, a character in an ad, etc..

You can of course use the same techniques explained in this tutorial, in a more subtle way, to spice up your portraits or images. Photoshop CS4 Essential Training teaches a broad spectrum of core Tutorials can often be your greatest source of inspiration when trying to design that project you have been putting off.

In this post, I have In this post, I have rounded up a Book description This title includes additional digital media when purchased in print format. Show and hide more. Table of contents Product information. Getting to Know the Work Area Getting started Understanding the workspace Working with the Tools panel The Control panel Working with panels Using panel menus Resetting and saving your workspace Changing the view of artwork Viewing artwork Using the view commands Using the Zoom tool Scrolling through a document Navigating multiple artboards Arranging documents Document groups Using the Navigator panel Finding Resources for using Illustrator Searching for a topic in Help Checking for updates Exploring on your own Review questions Review answers 2.

Selecting and Aligning Getting started Using the Selection tool Using the Direct Selection tool Creating selections with a marquee Creating selections with the Magic Wand tool Grouping items Adding to a group Working in isolation mode Selecting similar objects Applying selection techniques Advanced selection techniques Aligning objects Aligning to a key object Aligning points Distributing objects Aligning to the artboard Exploring on your own Review questions Review answers 3.

Creating and Editing Shapes Getting started Creating a document with multiple artboards Working with basic shapes Accessing the basic shape tools Creating with shapes Outlining strokes Working with line segments Joining paths Using the Eraser tool Combining objects Working with Pathfinder effects Working with shape modes Using Live Trace to create shapes Exploring on your own Review questions Review answers 4.

Transforming Objects Getting started Working with artboards Adding artboards to the document Editing artboards Transforming content Working with rulers and guides Scaling objects Reflecting objects Rotating objects Distorting objects Shearing objects Positioning objects precisely Changing the perspective Using the Free Distort effect Making multiple transformations Exploring on your own Review questions Review answers 5.

Drawing with the Pen and Pencil Tools Getting started Creating straight lines Creating curved paths Building a curve Converting curved points to corner points Creating the apple illustration Creating the arrow Splitting a path Adding arrowheads Drawing curves Selecting a curve Drawing the leaf Drawing different kinds of curves Convert between smooth points and corner points Drawing the apple shape Editing curves Deleting and adding anchor points Drawing with the Pencil tool Editing with the Pencil tool Finishing the apple illustration Assembling the parts Painting the artwork Exploring on your own Review questions Review answers 6.

If you need to use some of the additional tools often, you can tear off the additional tools intotheir own toolbar. To Tearoff additional tools, do the following:. Click and hold on the tool you want to see the additional tools for.

While holding down your mouse button drag your mouse to the end of the tools to the buttonwith the black triangle. Let go of the mouse button to make the additional tools and new toolbar Figure 5. Selection toolThe most commonly used tool, which selects text and graphic frames and allows you to workwith an object using its bounding box.

Direct Selection toolSelects the contents of a frame, such as a placed graphic; allows you to work directly witheditable objects, such as paths, rectangles, or type that has been converted to a text outline.

Magic Wand toolSelects all objects in a document with the same or similar fill color, stroke weight, stroke color,opacity, or blending mode. Lasso toolSelects objects, anchor points, or path segments by being dragged around all or part of theobject.

Pen toolCreates a line between two anchor points you make. Creates straight lines if you simply click and release to make anchor points. Add Anchor Point toolAdds a point to a path, which is a simple way to change any path. This helps to turn one shapeinto another. Convert Direction Point toolChanges the control handles around an anchor point reshaping the segments controlled by thatanchor point.

Pencil toolDraws open and closed paths as if you were drawing with a pencil on paper. It is most useful forfast sketching or creating a hand-drawn look. Polar Grid toolCreates concentric circles of a specified size and a specified number of dividers. Flare toolCreates flare objects with a bright center, a halo, and rays and rings. Use this tool to create aneffect similar to a lens flare in a photograph.

Erase toolRemoves part of an existing path or stroke. You can use this tool on paths, but not on text. Reflect toolFlips the object across an invisible axis that you specify. You can copy while reflecting to createa mirror image of an object. Scale toolScales a selected object by being dragged anywhere in the document window. Scales objectsrelative to their center points, or to any reference point you make anywhere in the documentwindow.

Shear toolSlants or skews an object along its horizontal axis, also rotates both of the objects axes. Reshape toolSelects one or more anchor points and sections of paths and then adjusts the selected pointsand paths globally. Warp toolStretches objects as if they were made of clay. When you drag or pull portions of an object. Symbol Spray toolCreates a set of symbol instances or increases more instances to an existing set.

Symbol Scrunch toolPulls symbol instances together or apart.